Career Highlights H. Hugh Fudenberg, MD

ball The Chief Editor of the journal Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology for 15 years and at one time or another has been on the editorial boards of 35 other journals dealing with immunology, aging, hematology, cancer, toxicology, etc.

ballThe first in this country to develop methods for measuring levels of immune antibody globulins (IgG, IgA, IgM).

ball Developed the technique for therapeutic plasmapheresis (separation of plasma and red blood cells) to remove harmful antibodies (e.g., in Myasthenia Gravis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, etc.), which led to the development of the cell separator which is now used to obtain preparations of pure immune cells.

ball The first to measure genetic factors on antibody molecules (Gm factors) and was the first to show that these are linked to weakness or resistance to different diseases (e.g., pneumococcal pneumonia, meningococcal meningitis, etc).

ball Disproved two hypotheses for which the proponents had won the Nobel Prize: (1) that a single gene determined a given polypeptide chain; he showed that for immunoglobulins multiple genes (over 200) determine each polypeptide chain; (2) that the DNA to RNA to Protein sequence was a universal phenomenon; he showed the order in immune sequence to be Protein-RNA-DNA. (These findings were presented at a Nobel Prize Symposium in Sweden in 1967).

ball The first to use Dialyzable Leukocyte (and later Lymphocyte) Extract (DLE) containing Transfer Factor (TF) therapeutically and to demonstrate its efficacy in hitherto untreatable diseases such as some forms of immunodeficiency (e.g., congenital absence of the thymus and various viral, parasitic, mycobacterial {leprosy}, and fungal diseases {systemic candidiasis} and against cancer metastasis). He has also proven TF's therapeutic value in Chronic Fatigue - Immune Dysregulation Syndrome (CFIDS), subsets of Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, etc., in primary osteosarcoma in man and in an animal model. Published double-blind studies have proven the efficacy of antigen-specific Transfer Factors (a different one for each disease).

ball Developed the Rosette tests which labs use today as screening tests for immune capability.

ball Discovered that cell-mediated immunity (CMI), not humoral immunity (i.e., antibodies) to be deficient in certain disorders of cognitive function. (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Autism, CFIDS, etc.)

ball In 1984, predicted the failure of proposed HIV (AIDS) vaccines because they induced antibodies, whereas his data suggested the virus caused a defect in CMI.

ball Holds four honorary professorships (from universities in France, Italy, China, and Finland).

ball Discovered the Suppressor T-cell (1964) and showed that low levels thereof predispose an individual to auto-immune diseases such as lupus, lymphoma, etc. (in man and mice).

ball Has given 35 different Annual Medal Lectures (e.g., Hungarian Society of Immunology, Danish Cancer Society, Petrov Medal of the Russian Cancer Society, British Society of Immunology, American Academy of Allergy, etc.) throughout the world on his findings and has been visiting professor at every leading medical school in this country and abroad (Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Princeton, Oxford and Cambridge {England}, University of Barcelona {Spain}, University of Beijing {China}; every medical school in Italy, South Africa and Turkey; and selected medical schools in South America, etc.) as well as at prominent Research Institutes (e.g., Sloan-Kettering, M.D. Anderson, Karolinska Institute {Sweden}, Pasteur Institute {France}, and others in the U.S. and abroad).

ball Author or co-author of 800+ scientific articles, many published in the world's most highly-respected journals (such as: Lancet, Science, New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of Clinical Investigation, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences), and in over 20 immunology journals (e.g., Scandinavian Journal of Immunology).

ball Chief author of Basic and Clinical Immunology, the most widely-used immunology text in the world, translated into 12 languages, and of Basic Immunogenetics, the standard text in this sub-specialty of immunology, translated into Russian, Chinese, and four other languages.

ball In 1985 showed that there were at least two types of monocytes, one helper and one suppressor, and further showed that the ratio of suppressor monocytes to helper monocytes was greatly increased in the cord blood of infants, suppressing the response of maternal immune cells and explaining why the mother's immune system never rejects the fetus.

ball The first to show that Alzheimer's Disease contains at least 4 subsets and has devised therapy for two of the 4 types.

ball The first to show that there are at least 8 different disorders within the Autistic spectrum, and has devised therapy for 3 of these; in some cases patients have been restored to normal childhood development, i.e., mainstreamed.

ball Showed that Chronic Immune Dysregulation Syndrome (CFIDS), also known as Florence Nightingale Disease, is caused by different viruses in different patients, and has successfully treated 85% of such patients seen.

ball In 1982, showed that the dopamine receptor (neuronal receptor with greatest affinity for dopamine as compared to all other agents) was in reality the D2 receptor. What had up to then been called the D1 receptor had a greater affinity for PCP, "angel dust," thus accounting for permanent schizophrenia-like symptoms in individuals in whom this disorder lasted for at least 6 months. Aggregation of PCP by slight heat (e.g., 38oC) caused even greater binding to the D1 receptor. Apparently individuals who took PCP and recovered in several days differed from those whose defects were life long had had mild viral infection at time of exposure to PCP.

ball Has served on four Expert Committees of the World Health Organization, including 20 years on the Expert Advisory Panel on Immunology.

ball Has trained over 150 individuals who either received a Ph.D. or Post Doctorate training (M.D.'s and/or Ph.D.'s). Nearly all are active in research, though many are department chairmen which reduces research time. These include Professors of Immunology, Microbiology, Pediatrics, Medicine, Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Anesthesiology, Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Surgery, Veterinary Medicine, etc., as well as section heads at prestigious biotech firms. (Of 11 exceptions to the above, 1 is a university president, 2 are university vice-presidents, 4 are deans, 4 are in clinical practice.)

ball The first to use antigen specific immunoglobulin human transfer factor clinically to treat many supposedly untreatable conditions and to cure supposedly incurable diseases.

ball Expert on illness due to toxic effects of microbiological agents, herbacides, heavy metals, etc. that cause memory problems, especially those related to auditory memory.

ball Developed effective therapies for ADD, AIDS, Autism, Alzheimer's, CFIDS, HIV, MS and others.